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Author Topic: Everything about Yoga  (Read 726 times)

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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #15 on: March 03, 2021, 11:38:28 PM »
Details about the varieties:

Anuloma Viloma Pranayama/Alternate Nostril Breathing - Anuloma Viloma Pranayama/Alternate Nostril Breathing is a very a remarkable breathing exercise. In this pranayama, one inhales and exhales alternately by the two nostrils. It makes breathing better and balances the disturbed breathing pattern.

Instructions for Anuloma Viloma Pranayama/Alternate Nostril Breathing - Sit in the position of Padmasana/Lotus Pose or Sidhasana/Adept's Pose. Inhale through the left nostril, keeping the right one closed with the thumb of the right hand. Hold the breath, close the left nostril with the ring finger and the little finger of the right hand, and exhale through the right nostril. Then inhale through the right nostril, keeping the left one closed with the ring finger and the little finger of the right hand. Hold the breath, close the right nostril with the thumb of the right hand, and exhale through the left nostril. This completes one round of the exercise. Repeat the activity 4-5 times. Never exhaust yourself while doing this exercise.

Ujjayi Pranayama/Loud Breathing - Ujjayi Pranayama/Loud Breathing creates heat in the body. In this pranayama, inhalation is done using both the nostrils, while exhalation is done using only the left nostril. It helps in curing phlegm, asthma, and tuberculosis. It also strengthens the nervous system, respiratory system, and the digestive system.

Instructions for Ujjayi Pranayama/Loud Breathing - Sit in the position of Padmasana/Lotus Pose or Sidhasana/Adept's Pose. Inhale fully through both the nostrils while constricting the lower part of the tongue and the glottis (Glottis is the space between the vocal cords, which produces the sound of your voice by movements in which this space is opened and closed). Inhalation should create a sobbing sound. Apply kumbhaka/Breath Retention for as long as you can, without exhausting yourself. After that exhale through the left nostril, keeping the right nostril closed with the thumb of the right hand. Repeat the activity 3-5 times. Never exhaust yourself while doing this exercise.

Suryabhedana Pranayama/Right Nostril Breathing - Suryabhedna Pranayama/Right Nostril Breathing creates heat in the body and activates that part of the brain, which contains the vital life-force. It strengthens the liver and the immune system. It purifies the blood and cures gas problems, intestinal ailments, leucoderma and other skin diseases.

Instructions for Suryabhedana Pranayama/Right Nostril Breathing - Sit in the position of Padmasana/Lotus Pose or Sidhasana/Adept's Pose. Inhale slowly and deeply through the right nostril, keeping the left nostril closed with the ring finger and the little finger of the right hand. Then close the right nostril with the thumb of the right hand. Press the chin against the notch between the collarbones. Apply kumbhaka/Breath Retention and then exhale through the left nostril, keeping the right nostril closed. Repeat the activity 5-10 times. Never exhaust yourself while doing this exercise.

Bhastrika Pranayama/Bellow Breathing - Bhastrika Pranayama/Bellow Breathing is a combination of Kapalbhati/Skull Shining Breathing and Surya Bhedna Pranayamas/Right Nostril Breathing. It consists of fast nonstop series of bellowing breaths followed by the retention of breath. It enhances concentration, opens-up the nasal passages and perks-up the nervous system, respiratory system as well as the circulatory system. It also cures asthma, diabetes, sinus, and the diseases arising because of the wind, bile, or phlegm disorders.

Instructions for Bhastrika Pranayama/Bellow Breathing - Sit in the position of Padmasana/Lotus Pose or Sidhasana/Adept's Pose. Start inhaling and exhaling quickly and vigorously. This will inflate and contract the chest continuously and create whooshing sounds like that of the bellows of a blacksmith. Do this 5-10 times. Then take a deep breath and hold the breath for as long as possible. Then exhale slowly and steadily. This completes one round of Bhastrika/Bellow breathing. Repeat the activity 3-4 times. Never exhaust yourself while doing this exercise.

Sitakari Pranayama/Teeth Hissing Breathing - Sitakari Pranayama has a cooling and freshening effect on the mind and the body. That is why it’s more favorable to practice it in summers. It wipes off laxness, drowsiness, and satiates thirst and hunger.

Instructions for Sitakari Pranayama/Teeth Hissing Breathing - Sit in the position of Padmasana/Lotus Pose or Sidhasana/Adept's Pose. Open the mouth a little and press the tongue against the roof or the top inside part of the mouth in such a way that the tip of the tongue touches the back of the canine teeth. Suck the air in through the mouth with a hissing sound. Retain the breath for as long as possible. Then exhale slowly through both the nostrils. Repeat the activity 5-10 times. Never exhaust yourself while doing this exercise.

Shitali Pranayama/Tongue Hissing Breathing - Shitali Pranayama/Tongue Hissing Breathing has a cooling and freshening effect on the mind and the body. That is why it’s more favorable to practice it in summers. It should not be practiced in winters. This pranayama purifies the blood, cures flatulence, constipation, indigestion, skin diseases, and pacifies the mind.

Instructions for Shitali Pranayama/Tongue Hissing Breathing - Sit in the position of Padmasana/Lotus Pose or Sidhasana/Adept's Pose. Open the mouth a little, stick your tongue out and curl it up in the form of a conduit. Suck the air in through the mouth with a hissing sound. Retain the breath for as long as possible. Then exhale slowly through both the nostrils. Repeat the activity 5-10 times. Never exhaust yourself while doing this exercise.

Bhramari Pranayama/Nasal Snoring Breathing - Bhramari Pranayama/Nasal Snoring Breathing entails using both the nostrils in puraka/inhale. This pranayama helps in curing insomnia.

Instructions for Bhramari Pranayama/Nasal Snoring Breathing - Sit in the position of Padmasana/Lotus Pose or Sidhasana/Adept's Pose. Start inhaling and exhaling quickly through the nostrils. This will create a snoring or buzzing sound. Continue the process till you sweat. Then breathe in slowly and deeply through the nostrils. Hold the breath for as long as possible. Then exhale slowly through both the nostrils. Never exhaust yourself while doing this exercise.

NOTE: Moorchha Pranayama/Fainting Breathing & Plavini Pranayama/Floating Breathing are the complex varieties of pranayama. These are meant only for the experienced practitioners of Pranayama.

Disclaimer: The information contained in this post is solely for educational purposes on the given subject. It should not be considered a medical advice nor should it be used as a substitute for medical advice and expertise of a physician, physiotherapist or a dietitian.
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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #16 on: March 09, 2021, 02:19:23 AM »
Maybe it's useful for a yoga instructor also to understand a variety of fitness related terms and definitions. At least, using scientific terms helps to impress some of the clients and also looks very professional.  :)

Abduction, Adduction Abductor and Adductor

Bodily movement that involves actions that are away from the midline of the body or one of its body parts. Abduction occurs in the frontal plane. The muscle that causes this movement is called the abductor. An example of abduction is when you spread your fingers outwards so as to increase the gap between each finger. Adduction is the opposite of abduction and involves movement towards the midline of the body. The muscle that causes adduction at a joint is called adductor.

Aerobic Fitness (cardiovascular fitness)

The ability of the body to perform exercise over an extended period of time in the presence of oxygen. (eg. cycling, marathon running...)

Agility

A component of fitness which enables a person to move, change direction and position the body quickly. This ability is inherent in the person and cannot be improved to a large extent. The Illinois agility run test is used to measure agility.

Agonist

The muscle that is directly responsible for the movement at a joint.

Anaerobic activity

It defines activity undertaken without the presence of oxygen. (eg. weight lifting, sprinting...) Such activities cannot be undertaken for long periods of time.

Anaerobic capacity test

A test that measures the ability of the body to undertake exercise of a short duration and of a very high intensity. The Wingate cycle test is commonly used to test anaerobic capacity.

Antagonist

A muscle that has an action opposite to muscle that is directly responsible for the movement of a joint.

Arterio-venous oxygen difference (VO2 difference)

A measure of the amount of oxygen consumed by the muscles. It is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood in the arteries and in the veins. At rest about 25% oxygen is utilized, but this can exceed 80% during exercise.

To be continued.
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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #17 on: March 10, 2021, 01:38:54 AM »
More.

Blood pressure (BP)


BP = systolic pressure / diastolic pressure. It is the force of the blood exerted against the walls of the blood vessels. The blood pressure changes during exercise and increases dramatically during intensive exercises.

Blood pressure is expressed as two numbers, e.g., 120/80.

The above mentioned blood pressure values are read as: "one hundred twenty over eighty".

The first value is the systolic pressure (pressure exerted when heart is pumping blood). The second value is the diastolic pressure (pressure on the arteries when heart is relaxed).

Body Mass Index (BMI)

BMI is defined as an individual's body mass (in kg) divided by the square of the individual's height (in m):

BMI = Body mass of individual / Height of individual2 (Weight / Height2)

Burnout

The loss of enthusiasm and energy related to an activity due to over excessive or high levels of the particular activity.

To be continued.
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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #18 on: March 11, 2021, 01:19:56 AM »
More.

Carbohydrate
An organic compound containing carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). Carbohydrates form an essential part of every diet.

Cartilage
It is a firm connective tissue that provides protection to the bone from wear and tear eg. the knee joint. Some types of cartilage also provide a structure to some body parts eg. the nose.

Components of fitness
The components of fitness are aerobic fitness, anaerobic fitness, strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition ("body composition" is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies) and speed.

Concentric muscle contraction
It involves a muscle shortening while contracting. eg. the biceps while lifting the weight during the bicep curl.

Cool-down
The period of light activity following exercise during which the heart rate is still elevated and helps to remove lactic acid from the body and ensures a quick recovery. This also helps to avoid dizziness after exercise.

Eccentric muscle contraction
It involves the lengthening of a muscle during movement eg. the biceps while lowering the weight during the bicep curl.

Extension
A movement which involves an increase in the angle of the articulating bones. eg. straightening your bent elbow. The muscle which causes an extension is called an extensor.

To be continued.
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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #19 on: March 13, 2021, 01:20:12 AM »
More.

Fast twitch muscle fiber
A type of muscle fiber that is suited for high intensity exercise.

Flexion
A movement that leads to a decrease in the angle between two articulating bones. (eg. at the elbow during the bicep curl when the weight is brought up towards the shoulder. The muscle that causes flexion is called the flexor.

Glycogen
This term refers to the stored form of carbohydrate in the body. Glycogen (C₂₄H₄₂O₂₁) is stored in the liver and muscles and used by the body along with fat to generate energy. The glycogen consumption increases with high intensity exercises. Athletes try to increase glycogen in their bodies before taking part in sports events.

Glycogen loading
A deliberate increase of the intake of carbohydrates to increase the glycogen in the body.

Hemoglobin
The component of red blood that performs the function of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the muscle cells. The normal should be 14-18g per deciliter of blood for males.

Isokinetic muscle contraction
The type of muscle contraction that occurs when the speed of shortening of the muscle remains constant over the entire range of motion. This type of contraction usually relies on special gym equipment.

Isometric muscle contraction
The type of muscle contraction that occurs when the muscle length remains static during exercise. This occurs when the force of the muscle equals the weight of the force applied on the muscle (eg. If you hold a weight in your hand with an outstretched arm for some seconds).

Isotonic muscle contraction
The type of muscle contraction that occurs when the tension remains constant and where the muscle shortens. (eg. weight training.)

To be continued.
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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #20 on: March 17, 2021, 12:19:06 AM »
More.

Karvonen method/principle/formula

A method of calculating the training heart rate/a mathematical formula that helps you determine your target heart rate (HR) training zone/a means of measuring the correct intensity of training for an individual.

Ligament
A strong fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another.

Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max)
The maximum amount of oxygen that can be taken in, absorbed and used by the muscles per minute. The maximum oxygen uptake is high for athletes like marathon runners.

Muscular endurance
The ability of a muscle to undergo repeated contractions without fatigue.

To be continued.
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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #21 on: March 19, 2021, 01:05:21 AM »
More.

Obesity
This refers to excessive body fat. It isn't just a cosmetic concern. It's a medical problem that increases your risk of other diseases and health problems!

Overtraining
A condition that arises due to an imbalance between training and recovery. This could lead to muscle ache, fatigue, loss of appetite and sleep disturbance. It is therefore recommended that athletes rest between heavy training sessions.

Participation pyramid

This refers to various levels of sports participation leading up to professional level. It consists of:

1. Foundation level, in which the individual learns basic sports skills and develops an interest in sports related activities (eg. physical education programs in schools.)
2. Participation level, where the individual exercises in his/her leisure time for a sport eg. extra-curricular sport at school or at club level.
3. Performance level, which involves fine tuning skills through coaching, training and competitions.
4. Excellence level, which involves reaching national and recognized standards of performance.


To be continued.
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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #22 on: March 24, 2021, 11:49:02 PM »
More.

Periodisation
The systematic planning of training throughout a season so that an optimal physiological and psychological peak can be reached.

Plyometrics
A type of training that is designed to improve both power and strength. It's also known as jump training or plyos; the exercises are those in which muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time, with the goal of increasing power (speed-strength), for example such as an athlete jumping from one block to the floor and then to another block.

Principles of training
Specificity, progressive overload, reversibility, warm-up, cool-down.

Progressive overload
The principle that suggests that in order to improve the body's strength or endurance, we must put it under some kind of stress and as the body becomes stronger we should increase the amount of stress to a next level.

Resistance training
This refers to any type of training or exercise where a resistance is applied to the body (eg. running up hills (i. e. against gravity) or weight training).

To be continued.
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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #23 on: March 30, 2021, 11:59:07 PM »
More.

Respiratory exchange ratio (RER)
The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) is the ratio between the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced in metabolism and oxygen (O2) used. The RER is calculated by dividing the volume of carbon dioxide expired per minute by the volume of oxygen uptake per minute. The formula is VCO2/VO2.

Rotator
The muscle that causes rotation is called the rotator.

SAQ (speed, agility and quickness)
A type of training designed to improve the speed, agility and quickness of the performer. This could include ladder and plyometric drills.

Slow twitch muscle fiber
These are muscle fibers which are designed for endurance and high aerobic activity and which can produce a large amount of energy using oxygen (eg. marathon runners and cyclists have a lot of slow twitch fibers).

Strength
The maximum force that can be developed within a muscle or group of muscles during a single contraction. It can be developed by special training called strength training (the most common of which is weight training).

Synergist
The muscle which contracts to enhance the efficiency of the muscle that is primarily important for the movement of the joint.

Tendon
It is the connective tissue responsible for attaching skeletal muscle to bone.

Warm-up
A period of light activity before exercise that helps to avoid injury and soreness, and helps the individual get ready for the exercise. It consists of stage 1 which involves continuous activity such as jogging, stage 2 that consists of stretching and stage 3 that consists of the skill-related practice (eg. serving in tennis).
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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #24 on: April 11, 2021, 03:16:06 AM »
Human Body Fundamentals (and the Muscular System)

The cardiovascular system

You probably often read the terms "cardiovascular health" or "cardiovascular endurance" during your life. All these terms relate to the cardiovascular system of the human body. The main role of this system in the body is to transport oxygen to all tissues in the body and for removing from these same tissues metabolic waste products. The system itself consists of the blood, the medium for exchanging oxygen and nutrients for waste products in the body, the blood vessels (the pipes through which the blood flows) and the heart (the pump which forces blood to flow through the blood vessels). The blood contains red blood cells that carry oxygen and help to supply the tissues and muscles with it. The blood also clears the body of waste. Blood is pumped by the heart to various parts of the body including the lungs where it gets supplied with oxygen. The fitter the person, the better the supply of oxygen to the muscles (cardiovascular system) and the more exercise enduring capacity.

Calculating your exercise heart rate range

You can estimate your maximum heart rate by subtracting your age from 220 (i.e. 220 - age; for example if you're 30, it will be 220 - 30 = 190).

Determine your lower limit exercise heart rate by multiplying your maximum heart rate by 0.6.
Determine your upper limit exercise heart rate by multiplying your maximum heart rate by 0.9.
Your exercise heart rate range is between your upper and lower limits.

Health benefits at the lower range are usually enough for most individuals and improve the fitness. Trainers should be careful about clients who take medicines for high blood pressure as they could affect the heart rate.

Different body types

Different types of body types react differently to training. The following are the various body types:

1. Endomorphs: Short neck, round face, wide waist girth, more fat in the body. Body fat will be put on fast, and exercises should be focused to keep the fat away. A balanced diet is important to keep endomorphs in shape.

2. Mesomorphs: Long upper body, large chest, more muscles and strength. They can put on weight faster. Their muscles will also grow fast and proportionately. They should eat a balanced diet with lesser fat.

3. Ectomorphs: Long arms and legs. Long and narrow hand and feet. Long and thin muscles and narrow chests, short upper body. Muscles develop slowly and weight gain is an issue. Ectomorphs should keep up their calories with supplements if they are body building. They can gain mass by doing mass building exercises.

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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #25 on: April 27, 2021, 01:56:07 AM »
How digestion takes place

Food provides energy to help our bodies grow. No one kind of food can fulfill all of the body needs, so we must eat a variety of foods in order to receive proper nutrition. Nutrients in foods are chemical substances and are classified as carbohydrates, fats and oils (lipids), proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and their burning is the body's usual source of energy for muscular work, body heat, breathing, and other functions. Amino acids which are linked together to form proteins contain nitrogen and sometimes sulfur in addition to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Amino acids are essential to our bodies. Fats are made up of fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids or unsaturated fats and cannot be manufactured by our bodies so they must be supplied by our diets. Vitamins and minerals are needed in small amounts and are needed to make chemical reactions happen in tissues. In other words vitamins help a body run smoothly. A normal healthy diet provides almost all of the vitamins one needs.

Digestion begins in the mouth with some starches and sugars being broken down into simple sugars by an enzyme in the saliva. Proteins are then partially digested in the stomach with some carbohydrate digestion. Fats are not affected. In the duodenum, bile from the gallbladder emulsifies (breaks up) fats and digestive enzymes from the pancreas attack carbohydrates, proteins and fats. In the small intestine, remaining parts are further broken down and absorbed into the body.

The digestive process can be broken into 5 different steps. These steps include ingestion, propulsion, mechanical and chemical digestion, absorption and defecation.

To be continued.
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Re: Everything about Yoga
« Reply #26 on: Today at 01:02:22 AM »
Types of muscles

There are four basic types of tissues recognized in higher animals, epithelial, connective, muscular and nerve. A muscle is a tissue that performs different functions which cause some sort of movement to take place. There are three different types of muscle cells: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. The various muscles of our bodies serve as the engines or powerhouses of the body and are so constructed to provide speed and power. Each muscle cell is designed for various functions that are needed by a certain area in the body. Muscle tissue has the ability to contract or to shorten, thus producing movement of internal and external body parts. Breathing, speaking, walking, talking, eating, and almost every other function requires muscle tissue.

Smooth muscles are composed of elongated, spindle shaped cells and are commonly involved in involuntary motions. Involuntary muscle contractions or motions are those movements that cannot be consciously controlled. Muscles made from these types of cells include those found in the walls of blood vessels, urinary bladder, and the digestive system.

Skeletal muscles allow movement by being attached to bones in the body. Skeletal muscles control voluntary movements which can be consciously controlled. Skeletal muscles are made up of cylindrical fibers which are found in the locomotive system.

Cardiac muscles are roughly quadrangular in shape. The muscles are found in the heart.

Muscle tissues are supplied with nerve fibers that carry messages to and from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Muscles are composed of about 75 per cent water, 20 per cent protein, and about 5 per cent is made up of carbohydrates, lipids, inorganic salts, and non protein nitrogenous compounds. The composition does vary in the different muscles.

To be continued.
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